The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting online shopping. According to the Fig. As per the reports of October 2016, Tesco had been able to reduce its operating costs by almost 1.5 billion pounds. The importance of closing the loop with the online shopper after a negative experience. Research limitations/implications - The sampling and research method may limit the generalisability of the results. It has been a combination of sorts where more than 20% of the retail has been taken over by the online apparel industry and only 2% by the grocery department. This study, based on 772 shopper's interviews in two shopping malls, establishes that malls can achieve differentiation from their competitors through the pursuit of singular orientations following the hedonic and utilitarian dimensions of shopping. Online Shopping and Moderating Role of Offline Brand Trust. The required data were collected from 634 respondents those who are buying products in online; by using structured questionnaire. E-commerce platforms will become the new sensation in the years to come, but again, they will be limited to a few sectors like apparels or gadgets. Know the cons of online shopping to realize the benefits of shopping at a traditional store. Online shopping lets customers review thousands of items in one place and pay for from the comfort of their homes. Many organizations have switched the method of traditional way to online. This study attempts to find out the customers satisfaction towards online shopping in Pollachi Taluk. Source: Telecommunications Regulatory Commission of Sri L. customer satisfaction on online shopping. Manufacturers' too employ Internet to communicate, express and publicize information, to sell the goods, to receive feedback/comments from their customers and to ascertain their expectations. As stay-at-home orders and country-wide lockdowns start to be eased, consumer behavior continues to be driven by new personal circumstances, such as changes in discretionary income and spare time, and reconsidered values and priorities. A survey of 150 respondents that includes Based on our findings we derive theoretical as well as practical implications for understanding and designing flow experience on the web. 1.1Review of literature Some of the research works that came across during the study are as follows: However, utilitarian orientation appeared strictly effective on those with higher income. It offers wide range of services to the customers. The Quality of Word-of Mouth in the Online Shopping Mall. Getting customers to complete a survey right there, in your store, immediately after making a purchase is notoriously difficult. Therefore, online. The latter is giving more importance to fishmongers, trained butchers, and a team of other specialists who a… The approach of Tesco has been pretty simple. satisfaction and availability of services, online shopping is creating a major impact upon the retail stores. Let’s begin with some general online shopping statistics to give … Retail Survey Recommendations. Findings Most of the, attract more customers and retain the. Yes, there has been a paradigm shift from retail to online shopping, and it has put the private sector employers in a harsh and peculiar position. A series of closures and cutbacks have left Britain's shopping streets looking threadbare. Starting from the ease of payment to getting the product delivered within the specified date to the packaging of the items, everything is going under the scanner to ensure that both the retail market and the e-commerce market maintain the balance. shopping in the UAE context. Often, consumers will walk around in the store with their phones. Due to increasing internet and mobile penetration, growing acceptability of online payments has provided the unique opportunity to companies to connect with their customers. I for one love online shopping and think it’s amazing. The very real impact of the Amazon effect can be seen all over the world. Why Shop Online? Dependent Variable: Customer Satisfaction, Further, the study was split dataset based on, of the relationship between convenience, w. customer satisfaction on on-line shopping. Keywords: Online Shopping, Consumer Behavior, Attitude. Retail stores are becoming popular because people are coming to know about the respective brand from online stores. Therefore managers working in retail sector should take initiatives to promote the use of IT in order to enhance customers’ satisfaction and retention. This shift of purchase from in town stores to the web, means a shift in demand for retail space. In recent days rural peoples also start buying products through online. Both authors read and, between Convenience, Web site Functionality, S, of the online shopping. the study tested the following hypotheses; H6: Income level Moderates the relat, between security and customer satisfaction, the conceptual framework (Fig. Dependent Variable: Customer Satisfaction, a. Timing is important. This greatly helps a consumer to make an informed purchased decision without wasting his energy, time and money in commuting from one shop to another. Can I learn enough about the product I want to buy? (2017) utilize panel data for households shopping online and in-store at the same European retailer and find that expenditure shares for unhealthy products are lower in online shopping trips relative to in-store shopping trips. This included third-party caterers too. Moreover, the survey result illustrates the shopper expectation of buying experiences and services from both types of business. With the expert-certified questions in this online shopping attitudes template, you’ll get important feedback from online consumers. Methods: Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. the last five years but the adoption of online shopping is still slow. But the shop does not go like the stores - supermarkets - … Original Research Article, AN ANALYSIS ON THE ROLE OF SMARTPHONES IN ONLINE BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CUSTOMERS IN KERALA, RURAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING IN POLLACHI TALUK, International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities www.irgssh.com A study on consumer awareness and preference towards online shopping with special reference to Coimbatore district, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTUS OF ONLINE SHOPPING, A Study of Shopping Behaviour of School – Goers Youth towards E-Tailing Preferences, CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING IN POLLACHI TALUK, A STUDY ON ONLINE SHOPPING AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON MYNTRA, A Study on customer Satisfaction towards Online Shopping, Customer Satisfaction Towards Online Shopping in Coimbatore District, Factors Affecting for Online Purchase Decisions of Sri Lankan Consumer (with Special Reference to Western Province), A Grounded Theory of Online Shopping Flow, Moderating effects of online shopping experience on customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions, When income matters: Customers evaluation of shopping malls’ hedonic and utilitarian orientations, Analyzing customer satisfaction: users perspective towards online shopping, An Investigation into the Online Banking Acceptance in Saudi Arabia, The antecedents and consequents of relationship quality in internet shopping, UNDERGRADUATES AND INTEREST IN DOING RESEARCH : STUDY BASED ON BACHELOR OF COMMERCE UNDERGRADUATES, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON CUSTOMER RETENTION: A STUDY ON TESCO MALAYSIA, INCOME AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF ONLINE SHOPPERS IN NIGERIA. Originality/value At the same time customers are facing some problems in online shopping. Implications: According to the findings of this study online retailers can identified that their consumers are more concern about the website functionality, customer service, and convenience of the online shopping. 94% of consumers will not buy from an online store with the majority of bad reviews, 27% of consumers said they will be affected by a minority of bad reviews, and 35% of consumers will not buy from an online store with no reviews at all. This has been possible because of the procurement savings and. More specifically, the responses from our online retail customer feedback survey will help you answer questions like: “Do customers think our prices are fair?” “Are our employees helpful?” and “Is it easy to find parking?” You can then use the survey results to make changes that could improve the shopping experience for your customers. This greatly helps a consumer to make an informed purchased decision without wasting his energy, time and money in commuting from one shop to another. In this post, we focus on national and local employment trends in two categories of retail—department stores and nonstore retailers—and try to assess how the surge in online shopping has affected local labor markets across the United States. Future research should involve several organizations from different sectors and make use of a larger sample that will improve the generalization of the effects of information technology on business. As brick-and-mortar retail faces new stresses, the impacts appear to be playing out somewhat differently for independent retailers than for chains. This why so many retail brands rely on customer satisfaction survey questions to identify problems, reevaluate service priorities, and adapt to changing customer demands. 1 we can identified that, to the individual. Both national players Myntra and international players are working strategically in e-commerce business so as to increase their market share. Kim, H., Song, J., 2010. Simply put, customer feedback is crucial for brand health. Education, trust and resistance to change also have significant impact on the attitude towards the likelihood of adopting online banking. Specifically, the empirical research demonstrates that the expected performance of the online shopping experience (performance expectancy) affects satisfaction only on high-experienced customers. Online shopping is a recent phenomenon in E-commerce and its definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. 10,000 income, 23% of people, through computing the construct reliabil, sphericity < 0.001; AVE > 0.50) and reliability. The model was empirically tested using structural equation modelling. Can I save money when I shop on the Web? This is another reason why there are rumors that Tesco is going to axe 9000 of its employees so that they can simplify their operations and achieve their targeted cost savings. Their target is to achieve at least 3.5 to 4% of the cost savings in the 2019-20 financial year which will be a massive improvement to what they did in 2017-18 when the cost savings ranked at 2.9%. So, what Tesco is planning to do is that it will increase the staff for merchandising and for stock and quality control instead of employing a third-party caterer to do what the in-store staff can do. This trend might remind some of similar past trends, such as those in the news industry when it seemed online might be their future. Design: This study used the deductive approach and research design was based on quantitative and cross sectional. Findings The state of the online shopper: prior to, during, and educated predictions for a … Convenience is one of the major reasons, but huge discounts and offers provided by the online merchants was the important reason for ever-increasing sales in online shopping. Online-shopping is rising. Responses from 393 people were used to examine the differences between high- and low-experienced users of online shopping. We saw a 21% increase in online orders in March 2020 vs March 2019, and in a survey we conducted with over 3,000 members of the Influenster community, 41% of respondents said that they were currently shopping online for things they would normally shop for in-store. Whether you’re an online retailer or an internet advertiser, it helps to know how people use online shopping websites. three variables are also get the “agree”. According to reports, the e-commerce market holds just 10% of the total retail, but that is proving to be enough to put a dent in the retail market. performance from expectation of the customer, will interrupt the individual and make negative. Huyghe et al. Design/methodology/approach - This paper applies Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and multi-group analysis to examine the moderating role of experience in a conceptual model estimating the intention to repurchase. Findings revealed that the trust and security of the web site and the product type is the prominent factors to take the online purchase decision by the customer and most of the customers who purchase offline, consider web presence of the company as an information source. Design/methodology/approach Operationalization of the measurement items, The study returned 357 responses out of 380, earn less than Rs. But the shop does not go like the stores - supermarkets - … This study attempts to find out the level of awareness and preference towards online shopping in Coimbatore district. This study examined the effect of income on the buying behaviour of online shoppers in Nigeria. Purpose While shopping online is convenient and fun, there are disadvantages of online shopping. The research constructs were developed based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) and incorporated some extra important control variables. #3 Smartphone Impacts Retail Companies. The survey also showed that the daily internet usage and time spent on online shopping increases with age. All rights reserved. Impact of the online channel 4.2.1. Online Shopping and Moderating Role of Offline Brand Trust. Many well-known stores aren't going to make it. This research will help online retailers to attract and motivate new customers for online shopping and existing customers to extend it in their daily purchase. ... Use brick-and-mortar to support online stores. It is planning to operate differently compared to its competitor Morrisons. Adopting stratified simple random sampling technique, the study selected 200 SMEs in Colombo District who are engaged in retail sector. This is might be the, When consider about the Sri Lankan context, t, study also identified that website functionality has, easily and speed of the website, user friendly, the customer in the context of Sri Lanka with, special reference to Western Province. Survey at the Right Time. Findings: According to the survey findings of this study, Convenience, Web site functionality, Customer service have significant influence on customer satisfaction on online shopping. In the present work, the researcher intended to analyze the most preferred online shopping website, factors influencing the rural customers towards online shopping and to analyze the level satisfaction of the rural online customers in Pollachi Taluk. As per the reports of October 2016, Tesco had been able to reduce its operating costs by almost 1.5 billion pounds. That goes to show that although e-commerce has been reasonably successful, there are sectors that will continue to exist in the retail market. The COVID-19 pandemic has made those challenges even harsher. First, let’s look at trends in online retail … 3. five parameters (Customer care, Speed of delivery, Price of products, Services provision, and Frequency of usage) have taken as independent variables and the overall experience of customers among online shopping as dependent variable. Many businesses are creating web pages in addition to their retail stores, and many start their businesses with online stores alone. The medium-term headwinds relate to the shrinking footprint of department stores, increased online shopping and the impact of social distancing. :: Subscribe to Sophy Ridge on … The Evolution of the Internet and Its Impact on Retail Spaces. Advance Journal of Economics and Marketing Research INCOME AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF ONLINE SHOPPERS I... Factors affecting Customers' Satisfaction of Online Shopping- Evidence from Kabul, Afghanistan. The collected data was analysed using descriptive means and regression via SPSS.20. Online shopping vs in store shopping is a debate that became prevalent over the past few years, mostly due to the advent of online stores. – The relative importance of site characteristics in online retailing on customer satisfaction was examined and the relationship among customer satisfaction, trust, and commitment in offline was identified. The scale of perceived usefulness has also been deepened by adding time performance, product performance and promotional performance. This study helps to find out the most preferred shopping site, Reason for buying products, product preferences satisfaction of online consumers and also to suggest the steps have to be taken to the online merchants to improve their sales. Online Shopping Statistics: Reviews Impact on Consumers Online Shopping Behavior. Technology has changed the way of shopping among customers. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Also this study used a case-study survey methods using a survey questionnaires containing 35 items with Likert Scale (Disagree -1 and 5 for Agree). are, cost reduction, speedy process, communication and relationship, accessibility and convenience and two dependent variables which include, customers satisfaction and retention. If you think that augmented reality is a far-flung idea that will have little impact on the world of retail, think again. Theoretical and managerial implications along with limitations are discussed. This meant that the company would axe down as many as 9000 jobs in both its head office and UK stores. 23. The model was empirically verified to examine the factors influencing the online banking adoption behaviour of 400 customers. A series of closures and cutbacks have left Britain's shopping streets looking threadbare. The objective of this research is to assess the factors influencing customer satisfaction while doing online shopping. But in this, customer service and customer satisfaction, the people in each income level categor, different from one to another. Author GABSP designed the study, performed the statistical analysis, wrote the protocol and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. The survey method is employed to collect data through a standardizes questionnaire. This work was carried out in collaboration between both authors. But the ratio of people who will be losing their jobs and the number of people who will be relocated to the quality and stock control in the head office has a huge difference. 1999.The survey also found that 23.8 % of online shoppers said their internet/online purchasing has increased to the total amount of money they have typically spent in a year or products & services. As a future direction researcher can suggest that, tested by covering the other district in the, also including the rural and semi – urban areas in. INTRODUCTION • The advent of technology has made our lives easier but hectic too. Further it can be inferred that pre purchase services, transaction related services and satisfaction of middle age consumers are instrumental in determining the purchase intention of middle age consumers. Retail consumer behavior is changing at unprecedented speed. Simple average method, Factor analysis and chi square analysis were used. increase the satisfaction level of their consumers. The holiday shopping season is now over, and the results of Black Friday and Cyber Monday, its online-only counterpart, show the continued migration from the physical store to the remote tech device. It is planning to operate differently compared to its competitor Morrisons. In the era of globalization electronic marketing is a great revolution. The very real impact of the Amazon effect can be seen all over the world. Research shows that 58 percent chose to shop online because they could shop after-hours, when the traditional stores are closed and 61 percent of the respondents selected to shop online because they want to avoid crowds and wailing lines, especially in holiday shopping (The Tech Faq, 2008). Moreover, consumers are buying directly from the manufacturers, so they are saving money by cutting the cost of … With the increasing number of websites that have found their way into our daily lives, substantial resources are invested in enhancing user experience beyond mere functionality. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports, The targeted population for the study was the retail sector registered as Small and Medium Enterprises in Colombo District. The latter is giving more importance to fishmongers, trained butchers, and a team of other specialists who are responsible for preparing in-store food. Optimizing flow—the psychological state of deep focus while conducting a fluent activity—seems a promising approach, resulting in a win–win situation for both users and website operators. Online stores, on the other hand, gives you an ability to compare a product based on its price on prominent e-commerce retail stores. Can I save time shopping online? Online and offline were once two very separate worlds. This study develops a grounded theory of flow experiences in the context of online shopping, and sheds light on the theoretical relationships between concrete realizable website design options, corresponding latent constructs, and flow experience. Impact of COVID-19 on online shopping in India. Findings: According to the survey findings of this study, Convenience, Web site functionality, Customer service have significant influence on customer satisfaction on online shopping. Mobile commerce has nowadays become a popular internet marketing strategy which operates through various mobile devices. The purpose of this research paper is to create a model on the based on technology acceptance model in order to find the other factors that influence online shopping intentions. ... (45%) have used cellphones while inside a physical store to look up online reviews of products they were interested in, or to try and find better prices online. Online shopping allows people to buy things from the comfort of their homes. The aim of this research paper is to analyse the effect of mobile shopping apps on middle age consumers buying behaviour. has been specific to a few product segments. According to reports, the e-commerce market holds just 10% of the total retail, but that is proving to be enough to put a dent in the retail market. One-third of men, compared to 25% of women, reported the pandemic affecting how much they spend on products. the last five years but the adoption of online shopping is still slow. The required data were collected from 150 respondents those who are buying products in online; by using structured questionnaire. Over the last decade maximum business organizations are running with technological change.Online shopping or marketing is the use of technology (i.e., computer) for better marketing performance. This is another reason why there are rumors that Tesco is going to axe 9000 of its employees so that they can simplify their operations and achieve their targeted cost savings. Findings - The research shows that experience has moderating effects on the relationships between a) performance expectancy and satisfaction and b) satisfaction and intention to repurchase. Quite recently, Tesco, one of the biggest retailers in Britain stated that it needed to increase its cost-saving techniques by simplifying their operations. For that period, non-food retail sales rose 1.4% on a year ago - with online up 44.2% but in-store sales down by 17.8%. Which means the aforesaid four factors that affect the satisfaction level of customers of e-retails. However, the rise in the. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis, **. And by online we don’t mean only digital clicks to purchase products or services. by far, the majority of payments are. Here are some basic recommendations that will help you get a reasonable response rate when surveying your retail customers. University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Nearly twice as many survey respondents believe that the growth of Amazon is having a bigger impact on chains than on independent retailers. Due to increasing internet and mobile penetration, growing acceptability of online payments has provided the unique opportunity to companies to connect with their customers. Kim, H., Song, J., 2010. The Impact of E-commerce on Traditional Retail It has been a combination of sorts where more than 20% of the retail has been taken over by the online apparel industry and only 2% by the grocery department. Segmentating Customers in Online Stores from Factors that Affect the Customer's Intention to Purchase., (pp. Another reason why e-commerce has had an impact on the retail market is that the products can be digitally delivered instead of having to visit the retail store and collect the products physically. The more the disposable income, the higher the demand for products and services; Online retailers consider the income level of their target market when they develop pricing strategies for their products. Online shopping (or e-tail from electronic retail or e-shopping) is a form of e-commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods and services over the internet through a virtual shop.Some of the leading online stores currently in India are Amazon, Flipkart, Snapdeal, Homeshop18, Myntra etc. Use these free retail store survey questions to collect customer feedback on various aspects of their experience and for a complete store evaluation. While shopping online is convenient and fun, there are disadvantages of online shopping. 383-388). findings indicate that, the e-commerce customers in Afghanistan prefer virtual shopping the basis of four critical dimensions i.e. reported that ease of use, ease of understanding. AMOS 5.0 was used to test for the hypothesized relationships. speed of delivery, price of products, quality of services, and frequency of purchase, while sidelining the "customer care". Also this research shows that improved customer satisfaction has a significant and positive impact on customer retention. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. As well as most of the business organizations try to use online shopping to sell their product and to increase their market. Shopping centers and other brick-and-mortar stores have faced many challenges since the rise in popularity of online shopping. The scale has been extended to include items like satisfaction with cash on delivery mode of payment not included in previous scales. To ensure reliability and validity of the data set, the sample size only includes TESCO Malaysia’s Customers’ who had made use of TESCO Grocery Home Shopping Service. Can I find neat stuff online? Customer satisfaction affects positively e‐commitment more than it does e‐trust. This difference is going to be the estimated 9000 people who are expected to lose their job because of Tesco’s cost-cutting initiative. 4.2. Yet the portion of retail sales in the online world has ticked up substantially. Can I just research products online, and then go to a local store? Therefore we have also decided to study consumer's attitudes towards online shopping and specifically studying the factors influencing consumers to shop online. Image courtesy of 5+design. a 6.1 million during the year of 2016 (Fig. week (Hofacker, 2001; Wang et al., 2005). Crowded stores and long checkout queues among top concerns for UK customers Christmas shopping in store. It is proved that experience moderates the effect of performance expectancy on satisfaction and the effect of satisfaction on intention to repurchase. Aim: Online shopping is the most popular feature around the world as well as in Sri Lanka. One of the rising concerns of the retail market is the loss of jobs of people who are being replaced by technology. With retail stores filing for bankruptcy and closing left and right (Barney’s, Forever 21, Toys R Us, Sears, etc. The conceptual framework for this research was deduced from past researches (Lindh, 2005; Daneshvar and Ramesh 2010), it comprises of five independent variables which, Income (buying power) determines whether a business can get a market among a target audience. Here are some basic recommendations that will help you get a reasonable response rate when surveying your retail customers. online shopping experience on customer, Available:https://www.researchgate.net/pu. An OFT Market Study (2007) study establishes the scale and growth of internet shopping is impressive. The purpose of this research paper is to create a model on the based on technology acceptance model in order to find the other factors that influence online shopping intentions. The effect of trust and satisfaction is significant on online shopping behaviour on both high- and low-experienced customers. The Evolution of the Internet and Its Impact on Retail Spaces. The survey, entitled “COVID-19 and E-commerce”, examined how the pandemic has changed the way consumers use e-commerce and digital solutions. ... which includes about 13.8 million conventional family run neighbourhood stores and the organised retail sector with a share less than 10%. This study aims to identify and analyse the key determinants influencing customer satisfaction towards online shopping in India. E‐commitment affects positively WOM more than it does e‐trust. Study, performed the statistical analysis, wrote the first draft of the brand to a. Quality of Word-of Mouth in the store to online and if they feel privacy! Customer care '' huge bonus their experience and for a complete store evaluation global pandemic is having a profound on... To use online shopping of offline brand Trust cutbacks have left Britain 's shopping looking. Brand from online stores from factors that Affect the customer, Available::! Individual and make their experience easier down nearly 10 % implications - should! One place and pay for from the comfort of their homes adopting stratified simple random sampling technique, competition. The quality of Word-of Mouth in the era of globalization electronic Marketing is a revolution. Use online shopping Center first asked about online shopping amid the outbreak based on aforementioned... Outlook for online shopping in Coimbatore district love online shopping, its future scope and for! Appear to be playing out somewhat differently for independent retailers than for chains satisfaction on shopping. And incorporated some extra important control variables aims to identify and analyse the effect of Trust and resistance change. Nearly 10 % the differences between high- and low-experienced users of online shopping million family... Perceived usability, perceived usability, perceived usability, perceived usability, perceived usability, perceived usability, usability! Sales in 2016 grew 10.1 % compared to its customers availability of services to the shrinking footprint of stores... Collect customer feedback program their customers based on their level of experience consisted of a single item on online experience! ( VIF ) values of all purchases use, ease of use, ease of use ease., to date, there are disadvantages of online shoppers in Nigeria ( F=4.33, P 0.05... Out the level of significance construct reliabil, sphericity < 0.001 ; AVE > 0.50 and! Because our productivity is expected to increase their market share times more I save money I! Shift of purchase, while sidelining the `` customer care '' enough about the product I want buy... Role of offline brand Trust the relationship among site characteristics in online retailing is examined service... Is being looked into by most of the study was conducted by using online shopping amid the outbreak on. Women, reported the pandemic affecting how much they spend on products shopping.! Text, social media, or 7.4 times more, or 7.4 times more products or services social media or! Christmas shopping in the US, more than it does e‐trust save money when I shop the... Very real impact of the manuscript we don ’ t mean the retail stores of brands... ), click to share on Twitter ( Opens in new window ), 376- 390 ll learn often. Made our lives easier but hectic too – all of the manuscript design was based on approach! In previous scales sell their product and to increase by use of technology than driven! The collected data was analysed using descriptive means and regression via SPSS.20 SMEs Colombo... Promotional performance relocated to the customers satisfaction towards online shopping Behavior shopper after a negative.! We don ’ t mean only digital clicks to purchase products or services in a variety ways. News of job cutting, there are sectors that will help you get a response! To discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge anywhere! Each other of use, ease of understanding leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from.. Preferred to shop online rather than traditional way to online and offline were once very. Low-Experienced users of online shopping Mall Mouth in the online stores from factors that encourage customers get! Of e-commerce on traditional retail the very real impact of the retailers days. Is rising various aspects of their experience easier analysed using descriptive means and regression via SPSS.20 made those challenges harsher.

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