The volcano, which formed on the south rim of the Aira Caldera, is a stratovolcano consisting of two peaks, the North Peak and the South Peak, and has repeating major eruptions. In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Sakurajima (Japanese: 桜島, literally "Cherry Blossom Island") is an active stratovolcano, formerly an island and now a peninsula, in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. It still spews ash and often has a steam cloud near the top. The Japanese archipelago, which sits on the Pacific "Ring of fire", has more than 100 volcanoes. LiveScience.com. 1971 Eruptions Lava lakes were visible in two craters at Sakurajima. Sakurajima Yogan Nagisa Park and Foot Spa is a free hot spring foot bath near the ferry port, where you can soak your feet while looking at the volcano. Sakurajima makes a perfect day trip from pretty much anywhere in Kyushu. To the west, still separated by about 4 km of water, lies the major city of Kagoshima, which frequently suffers from ashfall from the volcano. 500th eruption! One of the main agricultural products of Sakurajima is a huge basketball-sized white radish (Sakurajima daikon). On January 11, 1914, the volcano began violently erupting. It’s actually after a violent eruption in 1914 that lava running down the mountain filled up the gap that separated the eastern part of Sakurajima from Kyushu. Hiroshige's print serves a similar purpose of distributing a view of the island on a broad scale to people who have no way of knowing whether the illustration he provides is accurate. (2013). It is the most active volcano in Japan. Major historical eruptions occurred in 1471-76, 1779, 1914-15, and 1946. Sakurajima was joined to the mainland by the deposition of volcanic material following a major eruption in 1914. Sakurajima is one of the world's most active volcanoes, erupting over 500 times in the past year alone (Oskin, 2013). Why Japan's Sakurajima Volcano is so active. It is Japan’s most active fire mountain, as well as the site of that country’s biggest 20th century eruption: the VEI 4 Taisho eruption of 1914-1915. Sakurajima's activity became more prominent in 1955, and the volcano has been erupting almost constantly ever since. Thousands of small explosions happen each year, throwing ash to heights of up to a few kilometers above the mountain. [9], Monitoring of the volcano and predictions of large eruptions are particularly important because it is in a densely populated area, with the city of Kagoshima's 680,000 residents just a few kilometers from the volcano. The 1914 eruption was the most powerful recorded in twentieth-century Japan, taking the nation by surprise. Plumes The Sakurajima volcano is known to produce plumes of ash in conjunction with clearly visible electrical discharges, known as … Sakurajima is used as the title of a 1946 short story, written by the Japanese writer Haruo Umezaki, about a disillusioned Navy officer stationed on the volcano island towards the end of World War II as American air force planes bomb Japan. It lies about 8 km sou… It is not thought there was any damage caused. Sakurajima is a stratovolcano. Several craters lie near the 1,117-meter summit of Sakurajima. The Japanese archipelago, which sits on the Pacific "Ring of fire", has more than 100 volcanoes. The 1914 Taisho eruption of Sakurijima volcano was Japan’s highest intensity and magnitude eruption of the twentieth century. Parts of Kagoshima Bay became significantly shallower, and it made tides higher.[7]. The recent eruption was on 17 December 2020, Sakurajima from a ferry in Kagoshima Bay, 2019-07-01. In both the lantern slide and Hiroshige's print, we can detect a tailoring of the composition toward a glossing over or alteration of the reality of Sakurajima. [17], On 10 March 2009, Sakurajima erupted, sending debris up to 2 km (1.2 mi). You will be amazed at the large scale of eruption. Tephra fell as far as 1,000 km (620 mi) from the volcano. This was the largest eruption in Japan in the twentieth century. Sakurajima's last deadly eruption was in 1914, when 58 people died. The most recent eruption started on November 12, 2019. In 2017, volcanic smoke rose from Sakurajima’s craters over a thousand times and there were 406 eruptions, of which 81 were registered as “explosive eruptions” accompanied by tremors and … The origins of this lantern slide and its somewhat idyllic depiction of such a terrifying event are also notable in that the slide is dated between 1926 and 1927, over a decade after the eruption of Sakurajima took place. photo, caption -- Kagoshima after Sakurashima eruption, "The Sakura-Jima Eruption of January, 1914", "Sakurajima, Japan's Most Active Volcano", "New data points to major eruption of Japanese volcano", "The 1914 Sakurajima explosion at Volcanoworld", "Sakurajima at the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo", "Forecasting volcanic activity of Sakurajima", "Japan's Sakurajima volcano due for major eruption within 30 years, say scientists", "Japanese Volcanoes at the Northern Illinois University", "Reuters report on Sakurajima explosion, June 5th 2006", "Decade Volcano Sakurajima at the Earthquake Research Institute", "Volcanic activity world-wide 16 November 2012: Ruapehu, Paluweh, Michael, Kilauea, Fuego, Santiaguito, Nevado del Ruiz, Reventador, Sakurajima, Mammoth Mountain (Long Valley),Ambrym, Nyiragongo", "Sakurajima spews its highest volcanic column ever at 5,000 meters", "Volcano alerts issued in Ecuador, Japan", "Sakurajima in Japan Might Be Headed Towards a Large Eruption", "Volcanic activity worldwide 4 Apr 2016: Popocatépetl volcano, Bromo, Turrialba, Sangay, Sakurajima,...", "Kagoshima's Sakurajima volcano erupts, spews plume 5,000 meters up", "Sakurajima Volcano Volcanic Ash Advisory: ERUPTED AT 20201003/0735Z FL100 STNR OBS VA DTG: 03/0730Z", "Seismographs at the Panama-Pacific Exposition,", Sakurajima: Maintaining an island essence, Sakurajima: National catalogue of the active volcanoes in Japan, Aira / Sakurajima, Global Volcanic Program, Schoolchildren in Kagoshima wearing helmets to protect against stones thrown out by the nearby Sakurajima volcano (which is in background), Schoolchildren and their teacher wearing helmets, Google Earth ground view approaching Sakurajima from the mainland, Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) (entry for Aira /Sakurajima), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sakurajima&oldid=995311500, Wikidata value to be checked for Infobox mountain, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [23] This hand-tinted lantern slide from the E. Raymond Wilson Collection captures the incredible force of the volcanic eruption of Sakurajima, located in the Kagoshima prefecture of Kyushu, in January of 1914. [21], On 18 August 2013, the volcano erupted from Showa crater and produced its highest recorded plume of ash since 2006, rising 5,000 metres high and causing darkness and significant ash falls on the central part of Kagoshima city. Retrieved from http://www.swarthmore.edu/library/peace/LanternSlides/Lantern SlideIntro.htm, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/309616/Kagoshima?anchor=ref195410, http://www.livescience.com/38999-500th-eruption-why-japan-s-sakurajima-volcano-is-so-active.html, http://www.swarthmore.edu/library/peace/LanternSlides/Lantern SlideIntro.htm. Nevertheless, people still refer to Sakurajima as an island and after 1914, it still bears the same name with the same -jima suffix, meaning ‘island’ in Japanese. Sakurajima … Explosive activity continues. ... which is the memorial day for the devastating eruption of 1914. The story is based on Umezaki's own experience; he was stationed in a military cipher base in the nearby Prefecture city of Kagoshima. [2] The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Ōsumi Peninsula. A woodblock print by the renowned nineteenth-century woodblock artist Utagawa Hiroshige from his series "Famous Places in the Sixty-odd Provinces" illustrates the traditional iconography associated with the island. The shrine gate is located at the northeast of Sakurajima. (2013, August 19). THE HISTORY OF SAKURAJIMA'S ERUPTIONS Sakurajima is one of Japan's most active volcanoes with small, localised eruptions nearly every day. It was transformed from an island to a peninsula during an eruption in 1914. The northernmost crater, Kita-dake, last erupted approximately 5,000 years ago; to the south, Minami-dake and Showa craters have been the site of frequent eruptions since at least the eighth century. Sakurajima is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan with major eruptions in 1914 and 1947. [18], An eruption occurred from the Minami-dake summit crater at 5:38 on Sunday, August 9th, 2010, sending debris up to 5000 m (16,000 ft). Prior to this eruption, Sakurajima had been dormant for over a century. (2006, April). Still, it is estimated that up to 140 people died as a result of the eruption itself and corresponding earthquakes, landslides, and building collapses (Siebert, Simkin, & Kimberly, 2011, p. 338). The Sakurajima Volcano Observatory was set up in 1960 to monitor these eruptions. Yet while the name "Cherry Island" suggests an abundance of cherry blossoms, the reality of Sakurajima's environment contradicts this association. Head to the Sakurajima Lava Nagisa Park and its 100-meter-long thermal tub used for footbaths. [6] The surface of this volcanic peninsula is about 77 km2 (30 sq mi). This inclusion is not surprising when considering that the name of the island can be broken down into sakura, meaning "cherry," and jima, meaning "island" (Stewart, 1979, p. 162). [8] It is about 8 km (5 mi) south of the centre of the caldera. We can imagine how living with the continual prospect of disaster affects daily consciousness in Japan. The day before the eruption most of the residents had fled, due to several large earthquakes, warning them that the once-dormant volcano was about to erupt. Casey Lee, CC BY-SA 2.0 Sakurajima was formed by later activity within the caldera, beginning about 13,000 years ago. [7] Almost all residents had left the island in the previous days; several large earthquakes had warned them that an eruption was imminent. The depiction of cherry blossoms in this print demonstrates Hiroshige's use of artistic license in representing Sakurajima according to its name rather than its actual environment. Sakurajima is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Earlier eruptions built the white sand highlands in the region. After the concert, a statue showing Nagabuchi screaming with a guitar was installed on the site of the concert. It seems as though, for these people, a volcanic eruption is just another change in the weather, as they raise their umbrellas, cover their mouths, and walk on through clouded streets. Lava flows filled the narrow strait between the island and the mainland, turning it into a peninsula. [20] The volcano sits on the southern edge of the Aira caldera, the circular water-filled hole that formed on the north side of Kagoshima Bay in an eruption 22,000 years ago. Volcanoes of the world (3rd ed.). Sakura-jima formed an island until 1914, when an explosive eruption produced enough material to join the island to the peninsula on the east. [4], The volcanic activity still continues, dropping volcanic ash on the surroundings, which continues as of September, [26] Then, three months later, on July 26, it spewed volcanic ash 5,000 m (16,000 ft) into the air. Japanese Lantern Slides from the E. Raymond Wilson Collection. The lava flow was so large that it connected Sakurajima, previously an island, to the nearby coast, which suffered extensively from earthquake damage ("Kagoshima," 2013). [7] The eruption partly inspired a 1914 movie, The Wrath of the Gods, centering on a family curse that ostensibly causes the eruption. Several hundred cubic kilometres of ash and pumice were ejected, causing the magma chamber underneath the erupting vents to collapse. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Tokyo warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 8000 ft (2400 m) altitude or flight level 080 and is moving at 10 kts in SE direction. Lava flows filled the narrow strait between the island and the mainland, turning it into a peninsula. In both cases, the way in which Sakurajima is depicted has been carefully considered and tailored so as to engage the interest of the viewer in a specific manner. Entitled "Ōsumi Province: Sakura-jima," the print shows Kagoshima bay with numerous boats from which Sakurajima majestically arises. The former island is part of the city of Kagoshima. [7] Sakurajima volcano, located on the southwestern edge of Japan's Kyushu island, last erupted in 1914, killing 58 people and causing a … Just a couple of kilometres across Kagoshima Bay from the city of Kagoshima lies Sakurajima, one of Japan’s most active volcanoes. Sakurajima was also the name of Japanese singer Tsuyoshi Nagabuchi's song. Before 1955, the volcano exploded every few hundred years, blasting in 1471, in 1779 and in 1914, for example. 1955 Eruption The eruption of Sakurajima volcano in 1955 occurred on the southern flank for the first time in history. Kagoshima. This was the largest eruption in Japan in the twentieth century. The most notable aspect of the print is the abundance of cherry blossoms that appear in the valleys and ridges of the island. Don’t miss the shrine gate at Kurokami, which once stood around 3 meters high and was almost completely buried by a major eruption in 1914. It is truly an incredible moment which, from this safe distance, can almost be admired for its immense natural majesty. [9] Most of its eruptions are strombolian,[9] affecting only the summit areas, but larger plinian eruptions have occurred in 1471–1476, 1779–1782 and 1914. The resulting caldera is over 20 km (12 mi) across. However, the main crop was shifted to satsuma (mikan) from Sakurajima radishes, because the area of Sakurajima suffered so much damage from a 1914 eruption of the nearby volcano, decreasing the growing area to about 30 hectares (74 acres) by 1955. The volcano is one of the most active in Japan, and is a local attraction. Today, if you were to visit Sakurajima, you would be hard-pressed to find a single cherry tree on the entire island. The eruption occurred at 16:31 and was the 500th eruption of the year. During of them, a major eruption in 1914, lava filled a 400-meter wide strait causing the island to connect with Osumi Peninsula on the opposite shore. The volcanic activity still continues, dropping large amounts of volcanic ash on the surroundings. Sakurajima (桜島) is an active composite volcano (stratovolcano) and a former island in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. Initially, the eruption was very explosive, generating eruption columns and pyroclastic flows, but after a very large earthquake on January 13, 1914, which killed 58 people, it became effusive, generating a large lava flow. While the 1914 eruption has yet to be equaled in its fervor since its occurrence, the memory of the tragic event looms over people currently living in the shadow of Sakurajima. The mountain is in a part of Kagoshima Bay known as Kinkō-wan. It makes sense that such an image would be absent of any real indications of the suffering and destruction caused by the eruption. [3] It is the most active volcano in Japan. Sakurajima's last deadly eruption was in 1914, when 58 people died. Photographer Martin Rietze captured a rare picture of lightning within the ash plume in January 2013 during a magma ejection, which was a NASA astronomy pic of the day in March 2013. Sakurajima was formed by later activity within the caldera, beginning about 13,000 years ago. 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